A friend of mine Richard Jones now head of research and developemnet at Hydrogarden shared a written paper with me over 20 years ago now.
This paper had been written about how the exact amounts a plant can process, it factored in things like the type of plant, the amount of medium and type, the amount of lumens and feeds etc to see what the optimum results could be acheived by a plant to photsynthesis.
I cant remember much about it in great detail now, it was used as part of his dissitation for his horticulture degree, the same guy has the world record for the largest hydroponically grown banana plant, achieved while he worked for another hydroponic manufacturer.
But basically there is a formula for the amount of medium/area and light or lumens/area and lumens/food lumens/co2 it was a very in depth paper not written by my friend but had quotes from it in his own dissitaiton. So the details and formulas and findings are out there published.